Computer technology has made tremendous strides in recent decades and has had a profound impact on our daily lives. As we have advanced, technical terms have evolved that most of us are not necessarily familiar with. However, if you want to learn more about computers, software, and other related technologies, this glossary is for you.
This glossary contains a comprehensive list of the most important technical terms from the computer world and their meaning. We have tried to explain all terms as simply as possible, so that even lay people can understand what we are talking about. The terms are organized by category so that you can find the relevant terms quickly and easily.
The goal of this glossary is to help you gain a better understanding of computer technology and its terminology. We hope that you will benefit from this list and that you will soon become an expert in this field. So let’s start learning more about the world of computers and technology!
Operating systems: Explanation of technical terms from the computer world
Operating systems are the basic software program on which all applications of a computer run. An operating system coordinates the tasks of the computer and its peripherals.
A kernel is the main component of the operating system and controls the various processes within the system. It is responsible for the communication between hardware and operating system and also handles the access and usage of the working memory.
- Some well-known operating systems are:
The file system is another term in the world of operating systems. It is the way the operating system organizes data on disk, how files are named, and how they can be grouped or separated.
An interface is the method by which different elements of a system communicate with each other. An operating system user interface is an example of an interface because it allows the user to interact with the computer and its applications.
Programming is an important part of the computer world. This involves developing software that can perform various tasks on the computer. Various technical terms are used here, which are often difficult for lay people to understand.
An example of this is the term algorithm. An algorithm is a step-by-step guide to solving a particular problem. Programmers use algorithms to create and improve computer software.
- Another important term is the source code. This is the actual code that programmers write to create the software. The source code is then converted by special programs into executable code that the computer can understand.
- In addition, the compiler and interpreter are also important technical terms. A compiler translates the source code into executable code and the interpreter executes the source code by loading it directly into memory.
In summary, programming is of great importance in the computer world. Without programming, many of today’s technological achievements such as computers, smartphones and apps would not be possible.
Network engineering deals with the design, implementation and maintenance of networks. A network consists of at least two interconnected devices that can exchange data with each other. Network engineers need to understand both the physical infrastructure and the protocols and procedures necessary for data to flow smoothly.
A central element of network technology is the router. A router is a device that can connect networks together and control traffic between them. Routers can also act as a firewall that can monitor and block network traffic for harmful content.
Another important term in network technology is the OSI reference model. The model describes the structure and function of network protocols in seven layers. Each layer has a specific function and serves as the basis for developing standards that can be used by network devices worldwide.
- Related terms:
- LAN: A LAN (Local Area Network) is a network of devices that are physically close to each other, as in an office or building.
- WAN: A wide area network (WAN) is a network of devices that are distributed over long distances, such as across multiple countries or continents.
- VPN: A VPN (virtual private network) is a secured network built over public networks such as the Internet. It is often used to provide remote access to a private network.
Hardware or computer hardware
Computer hardware or simply hardware are physical components of a computer system. It includes everything that can be seen, touched and interacted with in the computer. For example, this includes a keyboard, mouse, monitor, printers, processors, memory, and so on.
Hardware can be divided into two categories – Internal Hardware and External Hardware. Internal hardware is the equipment within the computer that is necessary for the system to function smoothly. This includes processors, motherboards, memory, graphics cards, and hard drives. External hardware, on the other hand, is hardware that is not contained within the computer case, such as printers, scanners, keyboards, mice, and monitors.
- Central Processing Unit (CPU): The processor or CPU is the heart of a computer. It is responsible for the fast processing of data.
- Main memory: The computer’s main memory or RAM is a temporary storage space for files, programs, and data that can be accessed quickly by the processor.
- Hard disk: The hard disk is a permanent storage medium where files and programs can be stored even when the computer is turned off.
- Graphics card: The graphics card is responsible for displaying images and videos on the monitor.
Overall, there are many different types of hardware components that are necessary for a computer to function properly. Without the right hardware, a computer can only be used to a limited extent or not at all.
Databases: Glossary of technical terms from the computer world
Databases are structured data stores that are managed using data management systems (DBMS). A database consists of one or more related files or tables that can contain several types of information.
- Relational databases: These are databases that are organized and managed using tables. They use the SQL (Structured Query Language) standard to access or manipulate data.
- NoSQL databases: NoSQL databases store and manage data using document-based models, graphs and other technologies. It offers high scalability and availability.
Some important terms related to databases are:
- Primary Key: Unique identifier for each row in a table.
- Foreign Key: Column that establishes a relationship between two tables.
- Index: A data structure that allows records to be found quickly in a table.
- ACID: An acronym for atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability – the four qualities that distinguish a database transaction.
Database systems have a critical role in modern computing and can be used in a wide range of applications, from e-commerce to science.